I say YES.
We have the resources (on landfills), technology and science to do so (actually, since space based solar power was first proposed as a viable methodology back in the 1980-ies, its safe to say we had the ability for a while now), and I think we should.
Here's more on the subject:
I was thinking on what would an actual concentrated solar collector would look like... perhaps we could come up with some designs.
This is why I think Trek is a bit outdated from a technology point of view. The Trek humans should have easily been able to construct Dyson Swarms since First Contact with the Vulcans (because while they were fixing issues on Earth, they also developed/improve Warp drive, built ships, etc.).
Given faster than exponential developments in science and technology and how automation is leading even R&D, it stands to reason that if we begin constructing a Dyson Swarm ourselves, the first generation of autonomous bots would eventually upgrade themselves to better ones that are faster and take less resources to make (As we can design technology to be self-upgrading and self-maintaining - actually, maintenance could easily be eliminated if we designed technology with superior synthetic materials without planned obsolescence) and of course, the energy collectors (that would eventually comprise a Dyson Swarm) can today be built using say carbon based composites such as carbon nanotubes, synthetic diamonds and graphene - with automation leading R&D, material requirements would only go down over time - actual production could be accomplished by being powered by say Geothermal, solar and Wind for construction of the first space based solar collector or several (we are slowly but surely transitioning to renewables - and the process is accelerating), while others would be constructed in space of course, powered by the first collector (which would produce massive amounts of energy).
Supercomputers already discovered 4 new magnetic materials (a process which took about 1 month as opposed to decades that it takes Humans).
IBM's Watson is doing R&D in terms of medical science and recreated/confirmed an experiment that took humans a decade in mere 3 days.
Imagine if Trek Humans did this. Heck for all we know, they might have constructed partial Dyson Swarms and was never mentioned.
But technologically and science wise, the 22nd century would likely have been FAR more advanced in comparison to what we saw.
Given we live in a day and age where we are experiencing an acceleration of acceleration... in Trek, this would only have been compounded by thousands/millions of times orders of magnitude by creating a system without competition where everyone contributed meaningfully... and that's just 1 planet.
In Trek universe, combining all federation member worlds into such a system the developments would have been ridiculously greater.